NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS of ORGANIC, FRESHLY STONE-GROUND, SOURDOUGH & – CONVENTIONAL BREADS
Judy Campbell, B.Sc.,
Stuart Hill, B.Sc., Ph.D., P.Ag.,
Consumers concerned about their health are changing their dietary habits. Yet most are unaware of the potential nutritional value of bread, which makes up a major part of their diet. However, comprehensive information concerning this topic is not readily available. This paper compares the nutritional characteristics of organic, freshly stone-ground, sourdough breads with conventional breads, highlighting the factors which inhibit or enhance its nutritional value.
A brief history of wheat, its milling, and bread-making are included to enable the reader to better understand factors that are responsible for the decline or the improvement of the nutritional quality of bread.
The nutritional importance of using fresh stone-ground grains for bread-making was revealed in the results of feeding studies in Germany (Bernasek, 1970). Rats were fed diets consisting of 50% flour or bread. Group 1 consumed fresh stone-ground flour. Group 2 was fed bread made with this flour. Group 3 consumed the same flour as group 1 but after 15 days of storage. Group 4 was fed bread made with the flour fed to group 3. A fifth group consumed white flour. After four generations, only the rats fed fresh stone-ground flour and those fed the bread made with it maintained their fertility. The rats in groups 3 to 5 had become infertile. Four generations for rats is believed to be equivalent to one hundred years in humans.
Different ecological standards for flour storage set limits of 15 to 60 days (Picker & Pedersen, 1990), although rancidity has been detected as early as 2 to 14 days after milling (Larsen, 1988). Nutrient analysis studies are required to determine the exact nutrient losses accompanying the development of rancidity and thereafter.
Today, the Canadian Food and Drug Act and Regulations Division 13, B.13.001 permits the addition of numerous chemicals to white, whole wheat, and rye flours (Daniels, 1978). These include chlorine, chlorine dioxide, benzoyl peroxide, potassium bromate, ammonium persulfate, ammonium chloride, acetone peroxide, azodicarbonamide, ascorbic acid, l-cysteine, mono-calcium phosphate. Regulations also specify the acceptable levels. The addition of a variety of chemicals to bread is also permitted in the USA, but in many European countries the use of additives is almost completely prohibited (Jenkins, 1975). In Germany, for instance, chemical oxidizing agents were banned in 1958 (Marine & Van Allen, 1972).
Nitrogen bichloride, also known as agene, was one of the earliest bleaching agents. After 40 years of use, it was finally found to cause canine hysteria, and was outlawed (Rorty, 1954). The currently most common bleaching agent is benzoyl peroxide. It must be neutralized by adding such substances as: calcium carbonate (chalk!), calcium sulphate, dicalcium phosphate, magnesium carbonate, potassium aluminum sulphate, sodium aluminum sulphate, starch, and tricalcium phosphate.
The most common maturing agent in use is potasssium bromate, and it is added with carriers such as calcium carbonate, dicalcium phosphate, or magnesium carbonate. An alternative method to oxidize the flour to cause the same improvements in bread quality, is overmixing the dough three to four times normal to bring it in contact with oxygen. The lipoxidase enzyme in wheat germ or in soya flour, if it is added, uses the oxygen to oxidize the flour (Horder et al., 1954).
In addition to the chemicals permitted to be added to flour, many more are permitted to be added to bread before baking to facilitate the manufacturing process, to produce a light texture, and to improve conservation quality. These chemicals include emulsifiers, conditioners, and preservatives (Hall, 1974). At the present time, the Health Protection Branch in Canada allows the addition of almost 30 different chemicals, in limited quantities, to flour and bread. Yeast may also contain the Yeast foods additives: calcium sulfate and ammonium chloride (Aubuchon, 1990). Chemicals likely to be found in conventional breads include: lecithin, mono- and di- glycerides, carragheenan, calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, dicalcium sulfate, ammonium chloride, potassium bromate, calcium bromate, potassium iodate, calcium peroxide, azodicarbonamide, tricalcium phosphate, monocalcium phosphate, calcium propionate, sodium propionate, sodium diacetate, lactic acid, calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate, lactylic stearate, sodium stearyl fumarate, succinylated monoglycerides, ethoxylated mono- and all-glycerides (Marine & Van Allen, 1972)
In Germany, propionic acid, sodium propionate, calcium propionate, and potassium propionate have been banned as preservatives since March 1988. This was in response to earlier experiments which found that rats fed these substances developed tumors. These results have been questioned, however, because the tumors were reversable. Nevertheless, the German government decided that as few additives as possible should be found in food, and therefore saw no need to reverse their decision (“Nach…” 1987, “Jetzt…” 1988).
A topic receiving more attention, as people become more concerned about the foods they eat, is food irradiation. Approval for irradiation of wheat and wheat flour for disinfection was granted in 1969 in Canada (Conference on Irradiation, Laval, Que. 1984). Wheat irradiation prevents insect eggs, larvae and pupae from developing (Vanderstoep, 1986), but may also cause nutritional damage. Vitamins damaged by irradiation include vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, folic acid, vitamin C, E, and K. Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids are also affected (Webb et al.,1987). Although wheat, white flour, and whole wheat flour are treated with lower-energy ionizing radiations from Cobalt-60, there is still a possibility that some compounds within the food become radioactive, although the radioactivity rapidly decays (Josephson & Peterson, 1983). Toxic chemicals called radiolytes may also form, which may cause health problems over the long term. Some adverse effects have been found related to these, but there is still much scientific uncertainty (Josephson & Peterson, 1983). Irradiation technology is a serious health hazard and environmental hazard, especially if accidents occur where it is used.
Documented in 1936, was the diversity in physique of the different tribes of India, showing the effects of foods on health (McCarrison, 1936). The northern races were much stronger, due to wheat being the staple of their diet. They consumed chapattis cakes made from fresh coarse whole wheat flour. Experiments with albino rats determined the value of some of the Indian diets, and these results conformed with their effects observed on men. About 1 000 rats were fed a diet equivalent to the northern Indians’ for a period equivalent to 50 human years. None were ill or died, or even delivered dead offspring. Deficiently-fed rats under the same conditions developed many ailments. Overall, 30% of the rats fed white flour died while only 4% of those fed whole wheat died. It was concluded that adequate nourishment could be found in a diet of whole cereal grains, milk products, legumes, fruits and vegetables, and eggs and meat occasionally.
Rats on the healthy northern diet were also compared to rats fed a diet equivalent to that of the poorer classes of England (McCarrison, 1936). This diet, deficient in vitamins and minerals, consisted of white bread, margarine, very sweet tea with a little milk, boiled cabbage and potato, cheap tinned meat, and jam. These rats had stunted growth, were badly proportioned, had dull coats, were nervous, bit attendants, and by the 60th day, began killing and eating the weaker ones. Post-mortem examinations revealed a high incidence of lung and gastrointestinal diseases. McCarrison believed that vitamin deficiency was responsible for the many health problems.
Dr. Estelle Hawley, of Rochester University, fed a group of rats McCay-Cornell bread made with unbleached flour, wheat germ, and soybean flour and a lot of milk solids. She fed another group commercial enriched white bread. Both groups also received an amount of margarine equivalent to 10% of the weight of the bread (Rorty, 1954). The first group lived healthy, but the second group became ill, produced stunted offspring and were extinct by the fourth generation.
A journal article, written in 1942, discusses the deterioration of the physique of the British, between the 18th century and the Boer War around 1900 (Alvarez, 1942). The most probable explanation was that they had come to depend too much on white flour and sugar, whereas their ancestors had eaten plenty of ‘whole wheat flour.
In Denmark, during World War II, due to a food crisis, many domestic animals were slaughtered and their grain rations fed to humans. Consumption of white bread was stopped, and replaced by a bread made from a wholemeal of 67% rye, 21% oats, and 12% bran, called Kleiebrot. Consequently, the death rate fell to the lowest level ever registered in Europe. There were significant declines in the incidence of high blood pressure, heart disease, kidney problems, diabetes, and cancer, and there were no cases of digestive troubles (Marine & Van Allen, 1972; Day, 1966).
In 1970, Dr. Roger Williams, of the University of Texas’s Clayton Research Foundation, recorded the effects, on 64 weanling rats, of being fed bread made from enriched flour (Passwater, 1975). Forty were dead within ninety days, and the rest had stunted growth, whereas similar rats fed whole-grain bread were normal; only three were not well.
Commentary: I am currently considering getting a new grinder (Komo) which has a sifter attachment so that I could (somewhat) easily make fresh white flour in the bakery. Right now I use a Nutrimill to grind whole grains. It does a very good job but I cannot sift with it and hand-sifting is too time-consuming for a one man operation.
This is a little tricky because personally I like the breads I make from fresh-ground whole grain; however most of my customers do not and want something more ‘normal’, usually made with white flour. I did a quick calculation and found that the $1000 machine with sifter would more or less pay for itself within one year (because kernels are much cheaper than milled white flour) assuming I stopped buying pre-milled white flours and made my own.
On the other hand, with the larger household (versus much more expensive commercial) model with sifter which I could afford, it would take 21 minutes, give or take, to grind a fine flour for 8 1 kg white sandwich loaves, meaning I would be at it for 2-3 hours for an entire bake. Perhaps less, given that courser grinds go much faster. But with coarser, or whole grain grinds, I already have the Nutrimill so could keep using that one, albeit I have read that the high impact forced air method it uses undermines starch structure overmuch, whereas stone grinding is better. Also, by only having to order kernels, there are no storage issues since they can keep for years. There are always pros and cons with every decision.
In this case it seems like the main con is time it will require for grinding. The main pro is that I will be able to offer fresh stone-ground white flour to my clientele. That is a big pro and I must admit, given that it will pay for itself within a year, I am sorely tempted and suspect will bite the bullet and order one soon. It is time to order more flour, especially white flour within a few week; so maybe I’ll just order kernels and this grinder instead? Again, am definitely tempted despite the increased amount of work it will entail….